Can glutamate be neurotoxic?

Abstract. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate plays a major role in determining certain neurological disorders. This situation, referred to as ‘glutamate neurotoxicity’ (GNT), is characterized by an increasing damage of cell components, including mitochondria, leading to cell death.

What is glutamate induced toxicity?

Although glutamate is one of the most important excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, its excessive extracellular concentration leads to uncontrolled continuous depolarization of neurons, a toxic process called, excitotoxicity.

Does GABA or glutamate cause seizures?

An imbalance between excitation and inhibition has been a longstanding proposed mechanism regarding ictogenesis and epileptogenesis. This imbalance is related to increased extracellular glutamate in the brain and/or reduction in GABA concentrations, leading to excitotoxicity, seizures, and cell death.

Why does glutamate cause seizures?

Glutamate that is released from synapses act on ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, which afterwards leads to the initiation and transmission of the seizures[10]. Excess glutamate causing neurotoxicity is absorbed by astrocytes via glutamate transporters. Glutamate is not metabolized by any enzyme significantly.

What diseases are associated with glutamate?

However, excessive glutamate release can be toxic to the brain and has been linked to many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease (1).

How can glutamate toxicity be prevented?

Currently, there is no safe and effective drug to prevent excitotoxicity. Since overactivation of NMDARs is considered to be the main factor causing glutamate excitotoxicity (Choi, 1987), blocking these receptors is a potential strategy to prevent excitotoxicity.

Is epilepsy caused by glutamate?

Abstract. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and, as such, it inevitably plays a role in the initiation and spread of seizure activity. It also plays a critical role in epileptogenesis.

Can glutamine cause seizures?

Glutamine synthetase is pivotal for the metabolism of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and a deficiency in this enzyme has been postulated to cause accumulation of astrocytic and extracellular glutamate, recurrent seizures and neuropathological changes typical for MTLE (Eid et al., 2004).

How can I reduce glutamate naturally?

Relaxing herbs such as lemon balm, chamomile, and passion can offset the negative effects of glutamate by restoring its balance with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

How do you get rid of excess glutamate?