How do blood flukes affect the human body?

Untreated infections lead to enlarged liver, abdominal pain, anemia, blood in the urine or feces, trouble passing urine and an increased risk of bladder cancer. Schistosomiasis affects about 240 million people worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for over 200,000 deaths each year in sub-Sahara Africa.

What are the distinguishing characteristics of the 3 species of schistosomes eggs?

Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The eggs of Schistosoma haematobium are large (110-170 µm long by 40-70 µm wide) and bear a conspicuous terminal spine. Eggs contain a mature miracidium when shed in urine. Figure A: Egg of S. haematobium in a wet mount of urine concentrates, showing the characteristic terminal spine.

What disease do blood flukes cause?

Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma.

What disease does schistosomiasis cause?

Without treatment, schistosomiasis can persist for years. Signs and symptoms of chronic schistosomiasis include: abdominal pain, enlarged liver, blood in the stool or blood in the urine, and problems passing urine. Chronic infection can also lead to increased risk of liver fibrosis or bladder cancer.

What are the complication of schistosomiasis?

Some of the major complications are high blood pressure (hypertension), seizures, bacterial infections, urinary obstruction, organ damage or destruction, and death.

How does schistosomiasis enter the body?

You can become infected if you come into contact with contaminated water – for example, when paddling, swimming or washing – and the tiny worms burrow into your skin. Once in your body, the worms move through your blood to areas such as the liver and bowel. After a few weeks, the worms start to lay eggs.

What is the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis?

Schistosomiasis is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. Antigens released from the egg stimulate a granulomatous reaction involving T cells, macrophages, and eosinophils that results in clinical disease (see the image below).

How do schistosomes differ from other trematodes?

Unlike all other trematodes, schistosomes are not hermaphroditic but dioecious, forming separate sexes. Adult worms have elongate tubular bodies, each male having a unique gynecophoral canal (schisto-soma = split body) in which a female worm resides.