## How do you do a chi square test for independence in SPSS?

Running the Test

1. Open the Crosstabs dialog (Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs).
2. Select Smoking as the row variable, and Gender as the column variable.
3. Click Statistics. Check Chi-square, then click Continue.
4. (Optional) Check the box for Display clustered bar charts.
5. Click OK.

How do you do a chi square test for independence?

To calculate the chi-squared statistic, take the difference between a pair of observed (O) and expected values (E), square the difference, and divide that squared difference by the expected value. Repeat this process for all cells in your contingency table and sum those values.

### What is a chi square test used for in SPSS?

The chi-square test for independence, also called Pearson’s chi-square test or the chi-square test of association, is used to discover if there is a relationship between two categorical variables.

What is chi square test for independence in statistics?

The Chi-square test of independence is a statistical hypothesis test used to determine whether two categorical or nominal variables are likely to be related or not.

## How do you test for observation independence in SPSS?

To run an Independent Samples t Test in SPSS, click Analyze > Compare Means > Independent-Samples T Test. The Independent-Samples T Test window opens where you will specify the variables to be used in the analysis.

What is the null hypothesis in a chi-square test of independence?

The null hypothesis for a chi-square independence test is that two categorical variables are independent in some population. Now, marital status and education are related -thus not independent- in our sample. However, we can’t conclude that this holds for our entire population.

### How do you know if two variables are independent?

If X and Y are two random variables and the distribution of X is not influenced by the values taken by Y, and vice versa, the two random variables are said to be independent. Mathematically, two discrete random variables are said to be independent if: P(X=x, Y=y) = P(X=x) P(Y=y), for all x,y.

How do you Analyze chi-square data in SPSS?

Quick Steps

1. Click on Analyze -> Descriptive Statistics -> Crosstabs.
2. Drag and drop (at least) one variable into the Row(s) box, and (at least) one into the Column(s) box.
3. Click on Statistics, and select Chi-square.
4. Press Continue, and then OK to do the chi square test.
5. The result will appear in the SPSS output viewer.

## How do you calculate chi square?

The chi-square test is a non-parametric test that compares two or more variables from randomly selected data.

• The chi-square goodness of fit test helps determine whether the sample data matches the population or not.
• The chi-square test for independence helps determine whether the variables are independent of one another or not.
• How to run chi square test in SPSS?

Click A nalyze > D e scriptives Statistics > C rosstabs…

• You will be presented with the following Crosstabs dialogue box: Published with written permission from SPSS Statistics,IBM Corporation.
• Transfer one of the variables into the R o w (s): box and the other variable into the C olumn (s): box.
• Click on the button.
• ### How do you calculate chi square test?

“x 2 ” is the chi-square statistic

• “O i ” is the observed frequency
• “E i ” is the expected frequency
• “i” is the “i th ” position in the contingency table
• “k” is the category
• Degrees of freedom (df)=k-1
• What is the chi square test of Independence?

The data in the cells should be frequencies,or counts of cases rather than percentages or some other transformation of the data.

• The levels (or categories) of the variables are mutually exclusive.
• Each subject may contribute data to one and only one cell in the χ2.
• The study groups must be independent.