Is protoplast fusion a GMO?

Fusion of plant cells of organisms within the same family is not considered a technique of genetic modification under the Directive. Even when those species, for instance radish and cabbage, cannot “exchange genetic material through traditional breeding methods” . Protoplast fusion product plant is not a GMO.

What is GM in food processing?

Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism.

What technologies are used in producing GM food?

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are produced using scientific methods that include recombinant DNA technology and reproductive cloning.

What is the product of protoplast fusion?

Protoplast fusion permits the production of the somatic hybrids. One cell can be induced to fuse with another cell to form the heterokaryon which consists of cytoplasms containing chloroplasts, mitochondria and nuclei from both parent cells.

Can protoplast fusion occur naturally?

– cell fusion (including protoplast fusion) or hybridization techniques where live cells with new combinations of heritable genetic material are formed through the fusion of two or more cells by means of methods that do not occur naturally.

What is protoplast fusion technology?

Somatic fusion, also called protoplast fusion, is a type of genetic modification in plants by which two distinct species of plants are fused together to form a new hybrid plant with the characteristics of both, a somatic hybrid.

How are GM food made?

GM is a technology that involves inserting DNA into the genome of an organism. To produce a GM plant, new DNA is transferred into plant cells. Usually, the cells are then grown in tissue culture where they develop into plants. The seeds produced by these plants will inherit the new DNA.

Are GMO foods harmful?

GM foods currently available on the international market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved.

How are GM crops developed?

How are GMOs made step by step?

Production of GMOs is a multistage process which can be summarized as follows:

  1. identification of the gene interest;
  2. isolation of the gene of interest;
  3. amplifying the gene to produce many copies;
  4. associating the gene with an appropriate promoter and poly A sequence and insertion into plasmids;

What is an example of protoplast fusion?

Practical examples include the introduction of resistance to potato leaf roll virus from the wild species Solarium brevidens by fusion with dihaploid potato (Solatium tuberosum) protoplasts (1) and the production of novel hybrids between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and the sexually incompatible wild species ( …

How protoplasts are fused in plants?

The removal of the cell wall of one cell of each type of plant using cellulase enzyme to produce a somatic cell called a protoplast. The cells are then fused using electric shock (electrofusion) or chemical treatment to join the cells and fuse together the nuclei. The resulting fused nucleus is called heterokaryon.

What is protoplast fusion?

Protoplast fusion is also the only means of combining two cytoplasmically inherited characteristics in a single genotype. In addition, fusion can result in a reassortment of nuclear and cytoplasmic elements.

Who developed peg method of fusion of protoplasts?

Kao and Michayluk (1974) and Wallin et al. (1974) developed PEG method of fusion of protoplasts. This is one of the most successful techniques for fusing protoplasts.

What is the history of fusion plasmolysis?

Fusion of isolated onion sub-protoplasts plas­molysed with sodium salts was achieved for the first time by Kiister (1909). Subsequently, Michel (1937) demonstrated fusion between protoplasts using potassium nitrate as plasmolyticum. Power etal (1970) reported sodium nitrate induced fusion of cereal root proto­plasts.

Can cross-species protoplast fusion combine pentose-utilizing abilities of industrial ethanologenic microbes?

Cross-species protoplast fusion has been usually used to combine the pentose-utilizing ability of pentose-fermenting microbes with desirable traits of industrial ethanologenic species, for instance S. cerevisiae. In a study, P. tannophilus ATCC 2.1662 was fused with S. cerevisiae by inactive intergeneric fusion [ 10 ].