What are human HLA genes?

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a complex of genes on chromosome 6 in humans which encode cell-surface proteins responsible for the regulation of the immune system. The HLA system is also known as the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) found in many animals.

What chromosome are HLA genes on?

chromosome 6
The human major histocompatibility complex HLA is located on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is known to be the most polymorphic genetic system in humans. The biological role of the HLA class I and class II molecules is to present processed peptide antigens.

How many HLA genes do humans have?

There are 19 HLA class I gene loci, where 3 are classical (HLA-A, -B and -C), 3 non-classical (HLA-E, -F and -G) and 12 non-coding genes or pseudogenes (HLA-S/17, -X, -N/30, -L/92, -J/59, -W/80, -U/21, -K/70, -16, -H/54, -90 and -75), clustered within three separate duplication blocks, designated as the alpha, beta and …

What is the function of HLA genes?

The HLA complex helps the immune system distinguish the body’s own proteins from proteins made by foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria. HLA is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species.

How many types of HLA are there?

HLA are proteins that are located on the surface of the white blood cells and other tissues in the body. There are three general groups of HLA, they are HLA-A,HLA-B and HLA-DR. There are many different specific HLA proteins within each of these three groups.

Are all HLA genes expressed?

HLA class I antigens are expressed on all nucleated cells and platelets (except those of the central nervous system) while the HLA class II antigens are expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC) such as B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, Langerhans cells, endothelial cells, and thymic epithelial …

Why are HLA genes highly polymorphic?

A gene is referred to as polymorphic when more than one allele is expressed in a population. The HLA genes have the highest level of polymorphism of the human genome. The variability of HLA molecules is mainly located in the peptide binding domain (see the Janeway’s view)….HLA polymorphism.

HLA Class II DRA 3
DPB 121

What class is HLA?

The HLA system is composed of three regions. The class I region corresponds to the genes coding for molecules HLA-A, -B, and -C. In addition, the class II region encodes HLA-DR, -DQ, and –DP. Finally, the class III region, in which genes are encoding for proteins of the complement system and TNF family genes.

What is HLA in biology?

Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are genes in major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) that help code for proteins that differentiate between self and non-self. They play a significant role in disease and immune defense. They are beneficial to the immune system but can also have detrimental effects.

How many genes are in the HLA region?

The HLA region lies on the short arm of chromosome six at position 6p21. 3. The classical MHC spans 3.6 megabases (Mb) and comprises more than 200 genes, including many immune system genes, but also many genes without any known immune function.

Where is HLA expressed?

The Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) system known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in humans is located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21. 3) and contains the most polymorphic gene cluster of the entire human genome.