What can cause extramedullary hematopoiesis?

Extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs if the bone marrow is no longer functional. Primary myelofibrosis is a form of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative syndrome. In primary myelofibrosis, displacement and mobilization of stem and progenitor cells occur.

Is extramedullary hematopoiesis cancerous?

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) usually occurs in hematological disease, but more rarely develops in cases of malignant solid tumors.

How is extramedullary hematopoiesis treated?

Transfusion therapy, radiotherapy, surgery, use of drugs such as hydroxyurea/steroids or a combination of modalities, are all potential management options. Radiotherapy is effective as a primary treatment, because hematopoietic tissue is known to be extremely radiosensitive.

Does extramedullary hematopoiesis occur in adults?

Pathologic EMH can occur during adulthood when physiologic hematopoiesis can’t work properly in the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have to migrate to other tissues in order to continue with the formation of blood cellular components.

When does extramedullary hematopoiesis occur in adults?

If the loss of RBCs becomes severe, hematopoiesis will occur in the extramedullary spaces outside the bone. The cause of pathologic EMH can be one of many hematological diseases, such as myelofibrosis, or as a result of bone marrow irradiation.

What happens extramedullary hematopoiesis?

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), or blood cell production outside the bone marrow (BM), occurs when the normal production of these cells is impaired (chronic hematological and genetic disorders, leukemia, etc.) or is altered by metabolic disorders, such as hypercholesterolemia, or after myocardial infarction.

When does extramedullary hematopoiesis occur?

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs under various circumstances, including during embryonic/developmental periods, pathological status secondary to insufficient bone marrow function or ineffective hematopoiesis, in hematological disorders, for example malignancies, as well as stromal disorders of the bone.

What is EMH liver?

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH or sometimes EH) refers to hematopoiesis occurring outside of the medulla of the bone (bone marrow). It can be physiologic or pathologic. Physiologic EMH occurs during embryonic and fetal development; during this time the main site of fetal hematopoiesis are liver and the spleen.

What is extramedullary disease?

(2) Extramedullary disease is secondary to a hematogenous spread and refers to soft-tissue tumors arising from, or the PC infiltration of, an anatomical site distant from the bone marrow (mostly liver, skin, CNS, pleural effusion, kidneys, lymph nodes, and pancreas).