What causes cranial nerve 12 damage?

Disorders of the 12th cranial nerve (hypoglossal nerve) cause weakness or wasting (atrophy) of the tongue on the affected side. This nerve moves the tongue. Hypoglossal nerve disorders may be caused by tumors, strokes, infections, injuries, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Where is the 12th cranial nerve located?

Cranial nerve 12 is a general somatic efferent nerve originating from the brainstem. It leaves the skull through the hypoglossal foramen. It’s function is to enable tongue movements.

How do you test for cranial nerve 12?

The 12th CN is tested by having the patient stick out their tongue and move it side to side. Further strength testing can be done by having the patient push the tongue against a tongue blade. Inspect the tongue for atrophy and fasciculations.

What is the function of cranial nerve 9?

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth set of 12 cranial nerves (CN IX). It provides motor, parasympathetic and sensory information to your mouth and throat. Among its many functions, the nerve helps raise part of your throat, enabling swallowing.

What is the name of cranial nerve XII?

Hypoglossal nerve

Type General somatic efferent (GSE) (motor)
Origin Hypoglossal nucleus in medulla oblongata
Branches Meningeal branch, superior root of the ansa cervicalis, and terminal lingual nerves

What causes hypoglossal nerve damage?

Hypoglossal nerves can be damaged unilaterally by a multitude of causes especially, tumors, infection, or trauma. The concept of trauma includes surgical trauma as with carotid endarterectomy (surgery to remove the plaques from the carotid artery). Rare bilateral lesions can be the result of radiation therapy.

What is the 9th cranial nerve?

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the 9th cranial nerve (CN IX). It is one of the four cranial nerves that has sensory, motor, and parasympathetic functions. It originates from the medulla oblongata and terminates in the pharynx.