What defines pyelonephritis?

Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that generally begins in your urethra or bladder and travels to one or both of your kidneys. A kidney infection requires prompt medical attention.

What are the two types of pyelonephritis?

Chronic pyelonephritis represents diffuse, interstitial inflammatory disease of the kidney, which is not always infectious in origin. Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a serious, necrotizing renal parenchymal infection characterized by the production of intraparenchymal gas.

What is classification of pyelonephritis?

Overview. Pyelonephritis is an upper urinary tract infection. Pyelonephritis may be classified according to the duration of disease and etiology into 5 subtypes: acute uncomplicated, acute complicated, chronic, emphysematous, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

What is the pathophysiology of pyelonephritis?

Acute pyelonephritis results from bacterial invasion of the renal parenchyma. Bacteria usually reach the kidney by ascending from the lower urinary tract. In all age groups, episodes of bacteriuria occur commonly, but most are asymptomatic and do not lead to infection.

How is pyelonephritis diagnosed?

To diagnose acute pyelonephritis, physicians must rely on evidence of UTI from urinalysis or culture, along with signs and symptoms suggesting upper UTI (fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, costovertebral angle tenderness).

What are the complications of pyelonephritis?

Complications of acute pyelonephritis include:

  • Sepsis.
  • Parenchyma renal scarring.
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections.
  • Renal abscess formation.
  • Preterm labour in pregnancy.
  • Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

What antibiotics treat pyelonephritis?

Outpatient oral antibiotic therapy with a fluoroquinolone is successful in most patients with mild uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Other effective alternatives include extended-spectrum penicillins, amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

What are complications of pyelonephritis?

Acute pyelonephritis can have several complications such as renal or perinephric abscess formation, sepsis, renal vein thrombosis, papillary necrosis, or acute renal failure, with one of the more serious complications being emphysematous pyelonephritis.

What type of bacteria causes pyelonephritis?

Bacteria such as E. coli often cause the infection. However, any serious infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.