What does fatty acid synthesis start with?

The cytosolic acetyl-CoA is carboxylated by acetyl CoA carboxylase into malonyl CoA, the first committed step in the synthesis of fatty acids.

Why citrate activates fatty acid synthesis?

Citrate-derived malonyl-CoA can block fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by inhibiting carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1). Citrate can activate the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase1) and ACC, and so stimulate fatty acid synthesis.

What is the importance of citrate in fatty acid metabolism?

Citrate in the cytosol of the cell serves as substrate in the ATP-citrate lyase reaction and activator of acetyl CoA carboxylase* (5, 6). The acetyl CoA generated is carboxylated to form malonyl CoA en route to the synthesis of fatty acids.

What does citrate do in the citric acid cycle?

Citrate is produced in the Krebs cycle from oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA by citrate synthase (CS). It can be exported from the mitochondria through citrate carrier (CIC). Cytosolic citrate is broken down by ACLY to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can be used as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis.

What is the synthesis of fatty acids called?

Desaturation of Fatty Acids Fatty acids are synthesized in the saturated form and desaturation occurs later. Enzymes called desaturases catalyze the formation of cis double bonds in mature fatty acids. These enzymes are found in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Where is fatty acid synthesis?

Synthesis of fatty acids occurs in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum of the cell and is chemically similar to the beta-oxidation process, but with a couple of key differences. The first of these occur in preparing substrates for the reactions that grow the fatty acid.

What is citrate metabolism?

Citrate metabolism plays an important role in many food fermentations involving lactic acid bacteria. Since citrate is a highly oxidized substrate, no reducing equivalents are produced during its degradation, resulting in the formation of metabolic end products other than lactic acid.

What is the function of citrate and what role does it play in the growth of the bacteria?

Growth is indicative of utilization of citrate, an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle. When the bacteria metabolize citrate, the ammonium salts are broken down to ammonia, which increases alkalinity. The shift in pH turns the bromthymol blue indicator in the medium from green to blue above pH 7.6.