What does IL-4 stimulate?

Interleukin 4 has many biological roles, including the stimulation of activated B cell and T cell proliferation, and the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. It is a key regulator in humoral and adaptive immunity. IL-4 induces B cell class switching to IgE, and up-regulates MHC class II production.

Is IL-4 proinflammatory or anti inflammatory?

Interleukin-4 and IL-10 are pleiotropic anti-inflammatory cytokines that function mainly by suppressing the pro-inflammatory milieu. Several different immune cells that produce IL-4 are activated T cells, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and NKT cells (21, 22).

What is interleukin 4 receptor alpha antagonist?

Dupilumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody interleukin (IL) 4 receptor α-antagonist, resulting in the blockade of both IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. It is used to treat moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) as well as moderate-to-severe asthma.

What do IL-4 and IL-13 do?

Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are related cytokines that regulate many aspects of allergic inflammation. They play important roles in regulating the responses of lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and non-hematopoietic cells.

What does IL-4 do to B cells?

IL-4 is a cytokine with pleiotropic activity in the immune system (22), and it plays an essential role in the activation of mature B cells as a cofactor for LPS, CD40L, and Ag stimulation to induce B cell differentiation, proliferation, and Ab secretion, mainly of IgG1 and IgE isotypes (22, 23).

What does IL-4 do to macrophages?

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is the prototypic type 2 immunoregulatory cytokine that can suppress the production of many monocyte and macrophage pro-inflammatory mediators.

Why is IL-4 antiinflammatory?

When binding to the surface of target cells, IL-4 may differentially engage two different types of receptors. By acting on macrophages, a cell type critically involved in inflammation, IL-4 induces the so-called alternative macrophage activation.

What is the function of IL 17?

Interleukin-17 (IL-17, also known as IL-17A) is a key cytokine that links T cell activation to neutrophil mobilization and activation. As such, IL-17 can mediate protective innate immunity to pathogens or contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.