What is AVR gene?

Avirulence (Avr) genes exist in many fungi that share a gene-for-gene relationship with their host plant. They represent unique genetic determinants that prevent fungi from causing disease on plants that possess matching resistance (R) genes.

What is plant specific resistance?

In ‘race-specific’ resistance, plants match single mendelian resistance genes with the ‘avirulence’ genes possessed by races of a pathogen. Plants also employ the more complex and evolutionarily more robust system of ‘nonhost resistance’ against a broad range of pathogenic species.

What is race in plant pathology?

In plant pathology, a race refers to a pathogen’s ability to cause disease on its host and implies a gene-for-gene interaction between host and pathogen (Anderson et al. 2010). A set of differential host cultivars with unique combinations of resistance genes are frequently used to discriminate pathogenic races.

What are principles of IDM?

The six fundamental principles of disease management are exclusion, eradication, protection, resistance, therapy, and avoidance of insect vectors and weed hosts.

What is avirulent pathogen?

NON-VIRULENT (AVIRULENT) PATHOGENIC MI- CRO-ORGANISM: a pathogenic micro-organism that. does not cause measurable damage to the host; or (in an incompatible interaction), any pathogen that harbors an effector gene whose product (a non-pathogenic factor) is recognized by a host that harbors the complementary R gene.

What is the other name of specific resistance?

electric resistivity
Specific electrical resistance is also known as electric resistivity is a property of material defining how strongly can the material oppose the flow of electric current. SI unit of electrical resistivity is ohm-meter and is represented as ⍴.

How is a race defined?

Race is defined as “a category of humankind that shares certain distinctive physical traits.” The term ethnicities is more broadly defined as “large groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background.”