What is specular microscopy?

The specular microscope is an optical reflection microscope where a slit of light is focussed on the corneal endothelial surface and specularly (mirror-like) reflected light rays are focussed onto film plane for viewing on a real-time monitor.

What is normal corneal endothelial cell count?

Estimation of Corneal Endothelial Reserve Estimation of the endothelial reserve is made by compar- ing a cornea’s endothelial cell count to the normal range of 1500 to 3500 cells/mm2 (age, 40-90).

What is CD in specular microscopy?

Specular Microscopy Indices Defined Below is a quick summary on the various quantitative indices generated with specular microscopy. Cell density (CD): The number of endothelial cells per mm2. Cell density decreases with age and disease.

What is specular testing?

Specular microscopy is a noninvasive photographic technique that allows you to visualize and analyze the corneal endothelium. Using computer-assisted morphometry, modern specular microscopes analyze the size, shape and population of the endothelial cells.

How do you check corneal endothelium?

The corneal endothelium can be viewed by specular reflection using a variety of instruments, such as contact or non-contact specular microscopes, confocal microscopes or slit lamp biomicroscopes.

What is endothelial Polymegethism?

Endothelial cell polymegethism is characterized by the development of many cells that are smaller than normal and by the development of cells much larger than normal. Corneal endothelial cell area distributions for long-term contact lens wearers differ from those of nonusers of contact lenses.

Why is endothelial cell count important?

Having the ability to perform endothelial cell counts noninvasively allows eye care practitioners to provide quicker, more accurate diagnosis and treatment. Specular microscopy also offers valuable insight when making decisions that range from contact lens selection to surgical referral.

What is considered a low endothelial cell count?

The critical limit of the endothelial cell count for corneal decompensation is thought to be 700 cells/mm2. This communication reports 13 cases of clear corneal graft with endothelial cell count below 700 cells/mm2.

What is Polymegathism and Pleomorphism?

The cornea is the frontal transparent layer of the eye that covers the pupil and iris. Its endothelium is composed of a monolayer of hexagonal cells and plays a pivotal role in the homeostasis of the cornea. These cells are characterized by polymegathism (cell size variability) and pleomorphism (cell shape variation).

What is endothelial cell density?

ECD. The analysis of the optical density of the endothelium of main study group was a significant part of the conducted study. Statistical calculations demonstrated that the lowest cell density of the endothelium occurred in eyes of patients from the PEXG group (2241 ± 363 cells/mm2).

Which equipment are used to count endothelial cells?

The specular microscope is a special instrument that allows the doctor and photographer to see and record the corneal endothelial cells.

How many cells are in corneal endothelium?

Typically, a healthy cornea has about 3,000 endothelial cells/mm2 in the central area. CECs, or corneal endothelial cells, unfortunately, are lost with age.