What is the mechanism of the development of fever?

The mechanism of fever appears to be a defensive reaction by the body against infectious disease. When bacteria or viruses invade the body and cause tissue injury, one of the immune system’s responses is to produce pyrogens.

What is the immune mechanism of fever?

Fever occurs typically when a virus or bacteria invades the body. The immune system produces chemicals called pyrogens, which trick the brain’s hypothalamus (where the body’s thermostat resides) into sensing an artificially cool body temperature.

Which prostaglandin causes fever?

The appearance of fever is associated with the release in the hypothalamus of a lipid compound called prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which has an important role in the regulation of body temperature.

What is fever and explain its pathophysiology?

Fever, or pyrexia, is an elevation in body temperature caused by a cytokine-induced upward displacement of the set point of the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center. The purpose of fever isn’t completely understood, but small elevations in body temperature appear to enhance immune function and inhibit pathogen growth.

Which type of chemical induces fever?

A pyrogen is a substance (infectious organisms or their product toxins or cytokines) that provokes fever. Exogenous pyrogens are substances, which originate outside the body and which are capable of inducing interleukins.

How does prostaglandin raise temperature?

The rise in temperature was accompanied by shivering, piloerection, vasoconstriction, and with the animals taking up a curled up position. PGs increase body temperature by increasing heat production and decreasing heat loss.

Is prostaglandin a pyrogen?

In mammals, infection or inflammation result in the production of endogenous pyrogens such as interleukin-1b. These act on the brain to produce the fever. An essential part of the process is thought to be the production of prostaglandins within the brain as a result of the stimulation by endogenous pyrogens.

What are the 4 stages of fever?

There are five patterns: intermittent, remittent, continuous or sustained, hectic, and relapsing. With intermittent fever, the temperature is elevated but falls to normal (37.2°C or below) each day, while in a remittent fever the temperature falls each day but not to normal.

What are the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the generation of a fever?

The interaction of exogenous pyrogens (e.g. micro-organisms) or endogenous pyrogens (e.g. interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α) with the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) leads to the production of fever.

What cells release pyrogens?

Exogenous pyrogens initiate fever by inducing host cells (primarily macrophages) to produce and release endogenous pyrogens such as interleukin-1, which has multiple biological functions essential for the immune response.