What materials are used to make fuel cells?

Solid oxide fuel cell. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) use a solid material, most commonly a ceramic material called yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), as the electrolyte.

Which fuel cell has the lowest operating temperature?

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells They are typically fueled with pure hydrogen supplied from storage tanks or reformers. PEM fuel cells operate at relatively low temperatures, around 80°C (176°F).

Which material is used as electrodes in the fuel cell?

Nickel is used as the anode because it is economical and exhibits high performance, although due to reasons of adherence and different expansion coefficients, it flakes off easily from the electrolyte unless it is mixed with zirconia, creating a cermet.

What are solid oxide fuel cells made of?

Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFC) use a hard, ceramic compound of metal (like calcium or zirconium) oxides (chemically, O2) as electrolyte. Efficiency is about 60 percent, and operating temperatures are about 1,000 °C (about 1,800 °F). Cells output is up to 100 kW.

What metals are used in fuel cells?

A commonly investigated fuel cell, the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEMFC), usually uses platinum and other platinum group metal nanomaterials to catalyze the rate limiting Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) of this process.

What metals are needed for hydrogen fuel cells?

Hydrogen-fuel-cell technology, however, relies on platinum, which can withstand higher temperatures than other metals. A fuel cell needs platinum for the catalyst that separates hydrogen into protons and electrons, which then generate the electrical current, making it an alternative to battery-powered vehicles.

What is the most efficient fuel cell?

Alkaline Fuel Cells Operating at 60-70ºC (140-158ºF), AFCs are among the most efficient type of fuel cells, reaching up to 60% efficiency and up to 87% combined heat and power.

What metals are used in hydrogen fuel cells?

Which catalyst is used in solid oxide fuel cell?

The primary focus here is on the electrode catalysis required for high-performance electrodes. Because yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and scandia-doped zirconia (SDZ) are the standard electrolytes used in SOFCs, the discussion focuses on systems using these electrolytes.

What is a rare metal used in fuel cells?

A nitrogen doped carbon-coated nickel anode can catalyze an essential reaction in hydrogen fuel cells at a fraction of the cost of the precious metals currently used, Cornell researchers have found.