What is renal tubular dysgenesis?

Renal tubular dysgenesis is a severe kidney disorder characterized by abnormal development of the kidneys before birth. In particular, kidney structures called proximal tubules are absent or underdeveloped.

What is the physiologic reason for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome?

Causes. The exact cause of TTTS is not fully understood. However, it is known that abnormalities during division of the mother’s egg after it has been fertilized lead to the placental abnormalities that can ultimately result in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

What are the symptoms of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome?

What are the signs of TTTS?

  • A uterus that measures large for her stage of pregnancy.
  • Feeling like her abdomen is growing or expanding rapidly.
  • A sudden increase in body weight.
  • Increased abdominal pressure or pain.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Uterine cramping or contractions.
  • Swelling of the hands and legs early in the pregnancy.

What is the survival rate for twins with TTTS?

The majority of TTTS twins who have appropriate treatment during pregnancy will survive and the majority of survivors will be normal and healthy. If untreated, the survival rate for TTTS twins is approximately 10 to 15 percent. Once TTTS babies are born, blood supply sharing is no longer a factor.

When is Potter’s Syndrome Detected?

Clinical Testing and Workup A routine specialized imaging technique called a fetal ultrasound may detect Potter syndrome before birth. A fetal ultrasound uses reflected sound waves to create an image of the developing fetus and can reveal a lack of amniotic fluid.

How is twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome diagnosed?

TTTS is diagnosed by measuring levels of amniotic fluid. If one twin has a high level of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac and the other twin has a low level, it will be visible via ultrasound.

What happens when one twin dies in the second trimester?

If the twin dies in the second or third trimester, there are increased risks to the surviving fetus, including a higher rate of cerebral palsy. When a twin dies after the embryonic period of gestation, the water within the twin’s tissues, the amniotic fluid, and the placental tissue may be reabsorbed.

How does TTTS affect the mother?

Left untreated, TTTS will often worsen. The recipient tries to deal with excess fluid by creating more and more amniotic fluid – this will overstretch the uterus. This may cause the mother discomfort and may put pressure on the cervix, the lower part of the uterus.